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The Venationes of Rome

Entertainment in the Roman world revolved around the bloody spectacles that took place in stadiums like the Colosseum.  Festivals would last for days and many different events would take place one after another in an effort to please the crowds and the Emperor.  The most famous were the gladiator battles that would pit slaves, convicts, or prisoners against each other in combat to the death.  Thousands of gladiators were slain in the Colosseum as a means of entertainment.  These battles often took place at the end of a long day which featured other battles and performances in the arena.  One of these early events were the venationes or animal hunts.

Roman animal traders scoured the empire for the best and most ferocious animals that they could find.  Elephants were taken from North Africa, hippos from the Nile, and ostriches from the Sudan.  All of these animals were then shipped over to Rome where they were cared for in anticipation of their big day.  The venationes would feature these animals being hunted by prisoners or even professional hunters.  Other animals were used in the gladiator fights where the aim was to kill the men or at least put on a spectacle.  The venationes were focused on the thrill of the hunt, the death of the hunter would be seen as unfortunate or shameful.  The Roman crowds wanted to experience a hunt without having to go to Africa or Asia.  These events became so popular that most gladiator festivals started with a venatio.

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Famous venatore defeating a leopard (http://www.the-colosseum.net/)

            Over the course of a few hundred years these hunting performances exhausted the wildlife across the Roman empire.  The North African elephants were so popular, because of their tie to the vile Carthaginians, that they were hunted to extinction.  The Nile River delta hippos suffered a similar fate.  Over time the venationes evolved and they began to pit the animals against one another.  Bears from Scotland were chained to lions from Persia in an attempt to prove which was stronger.  Some of the best hunters became famous across the empire and their names were listed with the great gladiators of the time.  The venationes enjoyed nearly 400 years of success in Rome before the animals became too scarce to hunt and then the empire collapsed.  The spirit of the venationes continued throughout the empire and modern performances, like the bull fights of Spain, can be tied to the Roman spectacles of old.

Works Cited

Lindstrøm, Torill Christine. “The animals of the arena: how and why could their destruction and death be endured and enjoyed?.” World Archaeology 42, no. 2 (June 2010): 310-323. Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed April 12, 2015).

“Venationes.” The Colosseum. Accessed April 12, 2015. http://www.the-colosseum.net/games/hunts.htm.

“Venationes.” Venatio and Venationes. Accessed April 12, 2015. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/gladiators/venationes.html.

Wikipedia contributors, “Venatio,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Venatio&oldid=637775730 (accessed April 12, 2015).

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Women’s Fashion in the Roman World

Throughout time, clothing has morphed from a sole necessity of survival to a luxury of status. Fashion has defined individual groups of people and put a significant barrier between classes such as nobles and slaves. Several other groups can be ranked through what they wear and how they conduct themselves.

The Roman people loved their material possessions. In fact, there were several types of merchants that came from all over the known world to bring exotic things to the wealthy class. These exotic things could have been part of the cause for that significant barrier clearly observed between wealthy and deprived.

535px-Roman_toga_diagram.svg

Roman toga diagram

Stolas and togas were mainly worn as the basic form of clothing for the Roman people. Depending on your status, you either added to or took away that basic form.

Ancient_Times,_Roman._-_018_-_Costumes_of_All_Nations_(1882)

Ancient Times, Roman- Costumes of All Nations

Women, as well as men, used clothing as a marker of money and rank. Their class could be picked out just from looking at what they were wearing. “Widows were usually distinguished from wives, and the ‘mothers of the family’ from other matrons… Not only veils but also the other garments of women served as indicators of their status and social function” (Sebesta 46). Clothing, whether it was the dye used to color the cloth or how much layering was done, could change how the public saw individuals.

Puella Inguena, a Freeborn girl, would wear a toga praetexta and had braided hair tied with a vita, luna. A toga praetexta was also worn by freeborn boys and could have just been what brothers and sisters alike wore as day-to-day clothing. This kind of toga, as seen in this portrait of a child, was based from an “adult male’s but had a narrow, reddish purple woven border along one long edge” (Sebesta 46).

Meisje100

Meisje100

An adulteress or Adultera “was not permitted to wear the stola and vittae. Instead, according to custom, the woman divorced of promiscuity wore a plain toga. The symbolism behind the assumption of the toga would seem not to be that the woman had assumed the sexual freedom allowed males, but that she ahd lost her status and role as a sexually mature woman in Roman Society” (Sebesta 50).

Viduas (widow) possibly wore a ricinium, stola, and vittae. The ricinium was for everyday wear for women- the equal to a men’s toga. As time passed, the ricinium, now a dark colored material made out of wool, was used as a sign of mourning.

WORKS CITED

Sebesta, J. L. (2001). Symbolism of the Costume of the Roman Woman. In J. L. Sebesta, & L. Bonfante, The World of Roman Costume (pp. 46-53). Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

PICTURES

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The End of Roman Rule in Britain

The questions of when and why did the ancient Roman Empire leave Britain has been discussed among historians for many years. Some historians make the case that it was Rome who abandoned Britain while others suggest it was Britain through various uprisings that abandoned Rome. Looking at history, it appears both arguments have their merits.

Hadrian's_Wall_view_near_Greenhead

Hadrian’s Wall

(“Hadrian’s Wall view near Greenhead” by Mark Burnett. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons)

Most historians like to point to 409 or 410 CE as the two most likely dates when the Roman military had finally pulled out of Britain permanently. Reasons for Roman abandonment of Britain included the problem of barbarian attacks from various tribal groups at home as well as in Britain. This coupled with various uprisings against Roman leadership from the Britons put a great strain on the Roman military. Uprisings in Britain were not just done by the native Britons themselves. Several times Roman leaders whose power was based in Britain tried to seize imperial authority. The most well-known case involved Roman-Britain general Magnus Maximus, who crossed the Gaul and killed Western Roman Emperor Gratian, thereby becoming ruler of Gaul and Britain. Eventually Maximus was executed by Theodosius in 388. Constant usurpation of Roman emperors led to a lack of coherent policy throughout the Roman Empire, inevitably affecting its rule over Britain and the rest of its vast empire.

In the year 409 CE, the Roman army had proved itself to be very unpopular in Britain causing the Britons to revolt even more. This along with an expulsion of Roman-Britain magistrates could have been the deciding point for Emperor Constantine III to finally call an end to military occupation of Britain. In 410 CE, Emperor Honorius told the Britons after a request for military assistance against invaders such as the Saxons, that Rome was officially done assisting Britain militarily and that they were to be left to defend themselves.

Siliqua_Constantine_III-RIC_1355

Coin of Constantine III

(“Siliqua Constantine III-RIC 1355” by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons)

Sources

“Hadrian’s Wall view near Greenhead” by Mark Burnett. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.

“The Britons.” Hadrian’s Wall.Web. 11 Apr. 2015. <http://explore-hadrians-wall.com/history/history_9.php#&gt;.

“The End of Roman Britain.” Google Books. Web. 11 Apr. 2015.

“Roman Britain Timeline.” Roman Britain Timeline. Web. 11 Apr. 2015. <http://www.historyonthenet.com/chronology/timelineroman.htm&gt;.

“Siliqua Constantine III-RIC 1355” by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.

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Hellenistic Science

After Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 331 BCE he influenced the set up a university in Egyptian Alexandria called the museum. As a result of this, “a great center of learning grew up here which was to have much influence for several centuries to come” (Wise, 623). One of the main things that Alexandria was famous for was scientific knowledge (Mathisen, 276). Greek scientific discoveries in math and astronomy would influence how science was viewed not only theoretically but in the practical use of science as well. Prior to this, one of the first people to transform the traditional idea of Greek science as being, “based on imaginative hypothesis and convincing argumentation” to observation based on the natural world and experimentation was Aristotle (Mathisen, 274).

Aristotle called this observation of the natural world natural philosophy and, “considered [such fields as] biology, zoology, astronomy, and chemistry” to be natural sciences (Mathisen, 275). The scientific ideas of Aristotle obviously had a profound effect on Alexander the Great because in 343 Philip II of Macedonia had had Aristotle called to his court to tutor his son Alexander (McClellan and Dorn, 71). The scientific study under Aristotle caused a desire in Alexander the Great to spread Greek Scientific thought and  consequently Ptolemy I opened the museum as part of his, “policy in spreading the Greek culture and making scientific conquest” (Wise, 623). However, this thirst for scientific study would continue in Egyptian Alexandria even after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE  with several Hellenistic scientists who made great scientific discoveries (Wise, 623). One such individual in the field of mathematics was Archimedes.

Archimedes was educated in Alexandria and developed such concepts as the value of pi, “the method for calculating the area of sphere,” and “the law of hydrostatics.”  He also excelled in showing the physical application of  principles of mathematics. Another one of Archimedes’ great accomplishments is making machines of war, “but he did not make record of them possibly due somewhat to the general adversity of the Greek mind to the practical application of science.” (Wise, 624). This shows that even though practical application of science was already available the scientific community was not accepting of this practical application and as a result many scientists hid their inventions so as not to be ridiculed by their scientific peers. Greek scientists therefore valued pure scientific theory over unreasoned technological development. Hellenistic Greek scientists also valued traditional scientific thought over novel ideas that challenged preconsisting notions. An example of this occurred within the realm of astronomy with the idea of heliocentrism.

“Aristarchus of Samos” came up with the concept of heliocentrism (Witty,105). This concept of claiming that the sun was the center of the universe and that the earth revolved around the sun was rejected by the wider scientific community. The theory that that the scientific community held instead was that of Greek astronomer Hipparchus who proposed, “the universe with the earth at the center…. [and] that the planets move in a circle at the end of an imaginary spoke which itself rotated around the earth” (Wise, 624). Hipparchus’ theory was so pervasive that it lasted throughout the rest of ancient Greece, “in[to] the middle ages and early modern times” (Witty, 105).  However, In the end, even though Aristotle and Alexander the Great had started the world onto the path of observational science and the beginnings of revolutionary ideas through practical applied science, the scientific community was not ready for these ideas at the time. The Hellenistic Greeks did however leave the world as lasting legacy for what would modernly be seen as the beginning of formal scientific thought.

Head of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great was greatly influenced by Aristotle and Scientific Greek Hellenistic thought.

_Alexander_

Leochares. Head of Alexander the Great. ca. 330 BC. Acropolis Museum, Athens.Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Uploaded by Marsyas. Web. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great#/media/File:ACMA_1331_Alexander_1.JPG

Bust of Aristotle

Aristotle is the philosopher and scientist that used the term natural philosophy to describe the natural world.

Aristotle

Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippos. Bust of Aristotle. 330 BC. Marble, the alabaster mantel is a modern addition. National Museum, Rome.Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Uploaded by Jastrow. Web.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aristotle_Altemps_Inv8575.jpg

Works Cited

Wise, Charles D.“The Status of Biology in Alexandrian and Graeco-Roman Science.” The American Biology Teacher 27.8 (1965): 623-631. Web.

Mathisen, Ralph W. Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations: From Prehistory to 640 CE. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. Print.

McClellan III, James E. and Dorn, Harold. Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2006. Print.

Witty, Francis J. “Reference Books of Antiquity.” The Journal of Library History  9. 2 (1974):101-119. Web.

Leochares. Head of Alexander the Great. ca. 330 BC. Acropolis Museum, Athens.Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Uploaded by Marsyas. Web. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great#/media/File:ACMA_1331_Alexander_1.JPG

Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippos. Bust of Aristotle. 330 BC. Marble, the alabaster mantel is a modern addition. National Museum, Rome.Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Uploaded by Jastrow. Web.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aristotle_Altemps_Inv8575.jpg

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The Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War was a war fought between the Greek states of Athens and Sparta that lasted from 431 until 404 BCE (historyofwar). The war went so long because neither power was able to gain power over the other due to Athens’ strength on the sea and Sparta’s power on land.  The war is traditionally split into many parts; the Archidamian War, the Peace of Nicias, The Sicilian Expedition, and the Decelean War. The war was a huge power struggle that changed the Hellenistic world.

The Archidamian War began in 431 and lasted until 421 BCE (Mathisen). “At the start of the war, much of the Greek world was tied to either Sparta or Athens through alliances, leagues or membership of the Athenian empire.” (historyofwar)Sparta would march on Attic, and the Athenians would retreat into the city of Athens, refusing to fight. The Spartans did not have siege technology and the Spartans had no way to capture a walled city besides starvation, betrayal, or surrender. They tried to invade five separate times, but could not gain any ground. The war really started when the Thebes attacked Plataea, the only city that hadn’t joined the Theban dominated Boeotian League, but Plataea did not fall at that time (Historyofwar). A plague struck Attica, stopping the Spartan attacks on the city for a time. The Spartans were able to take Plataea in 427, gain allies in the Macedonians, capture Amphipolis in 424, and kill Athenian general Cleon. In 425, the Athenians responded by capturing 120 Spartans on Sphacteria, the first time that Spartans had ever been forced to surrender. By 421, both sides were willing to negotiate for peace. The Peace of Nicias began.

800px-Map_Peloponnesian_War_431_BC-en.svgMap of Greece at the time of the Peloponnesian War

The Peace of Nicias was named after the Athenian general who negotiated for Athens. The Spartan prisoners were returned, Athens lost the city of Plataea but gained a port from Megara, and Athens kept Nicea. Everything else was returned to the way it was before the war, settling nothing and upsetting many Spartan allies. The treaty was able to last for about six years, but there were constant skirmishes in and around the Peloponnese (Wikipedia). Argos, a powerful state, tried to create a coalition of states with the support of the Athenians. The Spartans tried to break it, but failed and the Spartan king’s leadership skills were questioned (Wikipedia). The largest battle at the time, and during the entire war, was the Battle of Mantinea, where the coalition was defeated by the Spartans. The alliance broke and most states reincorporated themselves into the Peloponnesian League.

The next major event of the war was the Sicilian Expedition. “In the next few years the Athenians took the offensive. They attacked the Sicilian city Syracuse and campaigned in western Greece and the Peloponnese itself (Britannica).” This second period of fighting lasted eleven years, starting in 415. After the Athenians destroyed the city of Melos for not joining the Delian League, Alcibiades, the Athenian leader, tried to gain more power and income by attacking the city of Syracuse. An impossibly large force was suggested to try to dissuade this from occurring, but the proposal passed. One hundred warships, one hundred thirty supply ships, five thousand hoplites, and one thousand three hundred troops were sent to Sicily (Mathisen). Sicily was initially caught off guard, but gained the upper hand, even when the Athenians sent reinforcements. “Aided by a force of Spartans, Syracuse was able to break an Athenian blockade. Even after gaining reinforcements in 413, the Athenian army was defeated again. Soon afterward the navy was also beaten, and the Athenians were utterly destroyed as they tried to retreat (Britannica).” This caused members of the Delian League to begin revolting and Athens lost much of its prestige in the Greek world.

During this time though, Sparta had decided to take to war on land again in a war called the Decelean war. They fortified Decelea and established a permanent military base. “The Spartans, advised by Alcibiades, decided to occupy a fortress in Athenian territory… on the slopes of Mount Parnes (historyofwar).”They also allied with Persia to get the money to pay for a navy, having to promise to let the Persians reoccupy Ionia if they won (Mathisen). “Over the winter of 412-411 the treaty between Sparta and Persian was renegotiated. This time Sparta agreed not to attack any Persian possession or former possession, not to take tribute from any of them, the Persians agreed not to attack the Spartans, both agreed to help the other, although the exact nature of the help was left unclear, both sides agreed to make war jointly against the Athenians, and only make peace together (historyofwar).”  Athens was desperately trying to recuperate from their defeat and was forced to use its reserve fund of 1,000 talents and demand tribute from allies which increased tensions (wiki). Political upheaval continued to wrack Athens making it weaker (historyofwar). Athens continued to win naval victories, but in 404, the Athenian fleet was destroyed. The Athenians were forced to agree to the terms of Sparta and obey Spartan foreign policy. They were also forced to accept an oligarchic government. Athens was completely ruined and both Sparta and Athens were weakened by the long years of warfare.

The Peloponnesian War changed the power structure and political giants of the Hellenistic world. Athens went from being one of the strongest city states in Greece to being effectively ruined, while Sparta grew into a world power. The power struggle between Athens and Sparta showed the power of Greece and changed the Hellenistic world.

Bibliography

“Peloponnesian War.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peloponnesian_War&gt;.

“Peloponnesian War | Ancient Greek History.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica,

n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2015.

<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/449362/Peloponnesian-War&gt;.

“Second or Great Peloponnesian War, 431-404 BC.” Second or Great Peloponnesian War, 431-404 BC.

N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2015.

<http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_great_peloponnesian_war.html&gt;.

Mathisen, Ralph W. Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations: From Prehistory to 640 CE. 2nd ed. New York:

Oxford UP, 2012. Print.

“Map Peloponnesian War 431 BC-en” by Map_Peloponnesian_War_431_BC-fr.svg: Marsyasderivative work: Aeonx (talk) – Map_Peloponnesian_War_431_BC-fr.svg. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_Peloponnesian_War_431_BC-en.svg#/media/File:Map_Peloponnesian_War_431_BC-en.svg

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The Holy Pirs of Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism was the dominant religion of Persia and other empires in modern-day Iran.  The prophet Zoroaster, or Zarathustra, lived between 1500-1200 BCE in ancient Iran and was the founder of the religion.  He disliked the class-based social structure of Bronze-Age Iranians because it broke apart the commoners and allowed them to be controlled by the priests.  Zoroastrianism revolves around a single god, Ahura Mazda, who gave his sacred rules and writings to his prophet Zoroaster.  One teaching that was handed down was the use of holy sites for pilgrimages to observe holy fire, fire being a dominant part of Zoroastrianism.  These sites are known as Pir and were located all around Persia and ancient Iran.

The main purpose of a Pir was to hold the sacred fires of worship.  Early believers used a simple hearth in their own homes for worship but as the religion grew sacred sites became more popular.  These so-called fire temples were spread across Iran but the main concentration was in Yazd province.  The six main Pirs are located in the mountains above the desert in Yadz.  Each one had a different schedule for pilgrimages so that travelers could enjoy festivals at each site without missing the next one.  Most pilgrimages took place during the summer months and were part of the fire festivals.

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Pir-e Sabz or Chak Chak, Yadz (Zoroastrian Sacred Sites)

            Each Pir was constructed differently but they had many similarities.  Each one had an altar for worship and then an inner grotto for greater religious purposes.  The inner grottos were enclosed by large bronze doors with engraved images of Ahura Mazda or Zoroaster.  These inner areas were for specific Zoroastrian members but the outer parts of the fire temple could be enjoyed by all.  Each Pir also had a legend or story that accompanied its founding or location.  For example, the famous Pir-E Sabz is located on the mountain where a Sassanid’s daughter fled from Arab invaders and Ahura Mazda opened the mountain to give her a place to hide.  The fire temple was built in this grotto as a marker of Ahura Mazda’s blessing upon the young girl.  Other Pirs have similar origin stories and small festivals are often held to commemorate these events.  These holy sites are still popular tourist locations and each summer Zoroastrians from all over Asia travel the pilgrimage routes to give devotion to Ahura Mazda and Zoroaster.

Works Cited

“Chak Chak, Yazd.” Wikipedia. April 26, 2014. Accessed March 29, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chak_Chak,_Yazd&oldid=605877689.

Eduljee, K.E. “Pir-e Sabz / Chak-Chak, Pilgrimage in Zoroastrianism.” Zoroastrian Heritage. Accessed March 29, 2015. http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/worship/piresabz.htm.

Green, Nile. “The Survival of Zoroastrianism in Yazd.” Iran 38:115-22. Accessed March 29, 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4300587.

Grey, Martin. “Zoroastrian Sacred Sites.” Places of Peace and Power. Accessed March 29, 2015. http://sacredsites.com/middle_east/iran/zoroastrian_sacred_sites.html.

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The Amazon Queen, Thalestris, and Alexander the Great

Johann_Georg_Platzer_-_Thalestris_im_Lager_Alexander_des_Großen (1)

Alexander’s campaigns in 330 BCE brought him around the Black Sea, where he received many emissaries from tribal leaders negotiating peace, surrender, or joint military campaigns. One of those emissaries is said to be representing Thalestris, a supposed Amazon warrior-queen with the intent to carry Alexander’s child in her belly. According to the legend, Thalestris strode boldly into Alexander’s camp with a company of 300 women dressed as warriors, and suggested the great Macedonian King mate with her in order to provide a strong child worthy of both well-accomplished leaders.

The reliability of this account was circumspect even to early authors of the tale. Plutarch, in Lives (46-119 C.E.) quotes Alexander’s General, Lysimachus, as saying “Where could I have been at that time?” when he was given an account of the supposed encounter, indicating that no one believed the fantastical tale of the Amazon warrior-queen and Alexander. Arrian, in The Campaigns of Alexander (146 C.E.), mentioned the story, but also discounts the tale, stating that the Amazons had all vanished long before the reign of Alexander the Great.

However, the tale has been passed down to us today as an account of Alexander’s prowess and magnificence. The identity of the Amazon Queen has intrigued both modern and ancient writers, as historians try to work out why this tale has been included within the ancient writings.

In a 2001 journal article “Alexander and the Amazons,” Elizabeth Baynham presented the argument that Thalestris is actually a daughter of a Scythian king who was presented to Alexander as a condition of treaty, and that her 300 female warriors were a gift to Alexander’s generals. Baynham argued that since Alexander sent the 300 females away with the intent to protect them from abuse by his own army, Alexander did not view this female escort to be a legitimate force. Baynham argued that true female warriors would be able to take care of themselves and would not have needed Alexander’s protection. She stated that these were most likely prostitutes sent by the Scythian king to please Alexander’s men, dressed up in play-armor and taught how to ride for Alexander’s amusement.

Another argument for a likely tale of the Amazon Queen was presented in 2015 by Adrienne Mayor. In “When Alexander met Thalestris” Adrienne stated that there were nomadic raiders near the Black Sea that sometimes banded together in same-gender groups. Mayor stated that often, the strongest female warriors would be sent out to find the strongest male warriors and mate with them, producing strong offspring to carry on their traditions. These groups often had similar custody arrangements that Thalestris arranged with Alexander, that the resulting female child would remain with the mother however, if the child was a male he would be sent back to be raised by the father. Adrienne pointed to recent archeological evidence to prove her point, consisting of graves of females adorned with weapons and grave goods that included drawings of armed women on horseback.

Whether the Amazon Queen was the daughter of a Scythian king or a nomadic raider in her own right, the enchanting tale of Thalestris and Alexander the Great delights the ear of all who hear this fantastic tale. The more cultural implications of these conflicting viewpoints have been lost to time, though it is clear from the skeptical tone of the contemporary writers that the story may have been nothing more than a propaganda tale showing Alexander’s greatness and glory.

Bibliography

Arrian. The Campaigns of Alexander. Translated by Aubrey De Selincourt. London: Penguin Classics, 1987.

Baynham, Elizabeth. “Alexander and the Amazons.” The Classical Quarterly 51, no. 01 (July 2001): 115-126.

Mayor, Adrienne. “When ALexander met Thalestris.” History Today 65, no. 1 (January 2015): 10-17.

Plazer, Johann Georg. “The Amazon Queen, Thalestris, in the camp of Alexander the Great.” Christie’s. sale 7609. London: Wikimedia Commons, 2008.

Plutarch. Plutarch’s Lives. Translated by Dryden. Vol. 2. New York: A. L. Burt Company, n.d.

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